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Table 1 Multi-GNSS data processing strategy in PPP

From: Semi-tightly coupled integration of multi-GNSS PPP and S-VINS for precise positioning in GNSS-challenged environments

Items Correction model or estimation strategy
Estimator All the observation from different GNSS are processed together in sequential least squares estimator
Observations Ionospheric-free (IF) combination
Signal selection GPS: L1/L2; GLONASS: L1/L2;BDS: B1/B2
Elevation cutoff
Observation weight Elevation-dependent weight model (Gendt et al. 2003). The a priori precisions for raw pseudoranges and carrier phases are set to 3 m and 0.03 cycles, respectively.
Satellite orbit and clock Precise orbit and clock products from the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) (Dach et al. 2017)
Satellite antenna phase center Corrected
Phase windup Corrected
Zenith Tropospheric delay Initial model (Saastamoinen model) + piecewise constant
Mapping function Global Mapping Function (GMF)
Receiver clock offset Estimated at each epoch by a white noise process
ISB and IFB Estimated as constant
Station displacement Solid Earth tide, pole tide, ocean tide loading, the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) Convention 2010
Ambiguity resolution No