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Table 1 Accuracy requirements and costs of typical indoor PLAN applications

From: Indoor navigation: state of the art and future trends

Application Accuracy requirement Cost
Industry and construction (Schneider 2010) Centimeter-level to millimeter-level $ 10,000 level
Autonomous vehicles (Basnayake et al. 2010; Levinson and Thrun 2010; NHTSA 2017; Reid et al. 2019; Agency 2019; Stephenson 2016; Nvidia 2020) Decimeter-level to centimeter-level $ 1,000 level to $ 10,000 level
Indoor mapping (Cadena et al. 2016) Decimeter-level to centimeter-level $ 1,000 level
First responder (Rantakokko et al. 2010) Decimeter-level in horizontal, floor-level in height $ 1,000 level
Pedestrian applications (Dodge 2013) Meter-level in horizontal, floor-level in height Use existing consumer devices; infrastructure deployment cost of $ 10 level per 100 m2-level area
Cellular emergency (FCC 2015) 80% within 50 m Use existing cellular systems