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Table 12 Future trends of PLAN sensors

From: Indoor navigation: state of the art and future trends

Sensor Future trend
HD map Reduced maintenance cost (e.g., through crowdsourcing)
Improved update frequency
LiDAR Lower cost and smaller size
Longer range
Camera Improved physical performance (e.g., self-cleaning, improved dynamic range, stronger low-light sensitivity, and stronger near-infrared sensitivity)
RADAR Reduced cost
Improved measurement density
WiFi/BLE Longer range, lower power consumption
New range and direction measurements
5G Denser and more miniaturized base station
Multipath-assisted localization; cooperative localization
New range and direction measurements
LPWAN Higher base station density
New range and direction measurements
INS Lower sensor errors
GNSS Multi-frequency and multi-system
Smaller size and power consumption
UWB/Ultrasonic Reduced cost
Longer range of low-cost systems