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Table 4 Companies and products in indoor PLAN

From: Indoor navigation: state of the art and future trends

Primary sensor Company Performance Sensor cost
Camera Mobileye Decimeter-level to centimeter-level $100 level to $10 level
Camera (infrastructural) VICON Centimeter-level and higher $10,000 level to $1,000 level for a specific area (e.g., a parking lot)
LiDAR Velodyne Decimeter-level to centimeter-level $10,000 level to $1,000 level
LiDAR (infrastructural) SICK Decimeter-level to centimeter-level $10,000 level for a specific area
HD map HERE Centimeter-level Costly. A team of professional cars works for days to create a regional HD map
Inertial sensors (vehicle) Profound positioning 2% of travel distance Low-cost IMU at $ 100 to $ 10 level
Inertial sensors (pedestrian) TDK-InvenSense 4–8% of distance; 1% of distance with a fixed device Low-cost IMU at $ 100 to $ 10 level
GNSS Trimble Decimeter-level to centimeter-level $ 1,000 level
UWB Decawave Decimeter-level $ 100 level for a set of anchors that are used to cover a place of 100 m2 level
Ultrasonic Marvelmind Decimeter-level $ 100 level for a set of anchors that are used to cover a place of 100 m2 level
WiFi/BLE Cisco 50% within 5 m and 90% within 10 m Infrastructure deployment cost of $ 10 level per 100 m2-level area
5G Huawei No commercial PLAN system yet $1000 to $ 100 level per base station. Coverage range from kilometer-level to within 100 m