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Table 5 Comparison of traditional map and HD map

From: Indoor navigation: state of the art and future trends

Time Accuracy Generation method Challenge
Traditional map (since 2000) Meter-level to decimeter-level (TomTom 2020; Liu et al. 2020), road-level Satellite imagery, land-based mobile mapping, and onboard GNSS crowdsourcing Not significant
HD maps (since 2010) Centimeter-level (Liu et al. 2020), where-in-lane level A team of professional cars equipped with high-end LiDAR, cameras, GNSS, and INS (Synced 2018)
Crowdsourcing using car-mounted cameras (Abuelsamid 2017) (challenging)
High requirements on accuracy, resolution, and updating rate; high data and computational loads