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Table 9 Principle, advantages, and disadvantages of PLAN sensors

From: Indoor navigation: state of the art and future trends

Sensor Principle Advantage Disadvantage
HD map Use detailed road and infrastructure data for precise localization and environment perception High accuracy
High resolution
Rich environment and infrastructure layers
High requirement on update and accuracy
High accuracy requirement
Costly in generation and maintenance
LiDAR Use infrared light waves to measure distances and generate point clouds High ranging accuracy
Dense point cloud
Being used in consumer devices
High cost
Large size
The problem in the life span
Dependency on the significance of features
Camera Collect and analyze images for localization and perception purposes Low cost
Dense point clouds with colors
Passive sensing
Sensitivity to illumination and weather
Dependency on the significance of features
RADAR Use radio waves for ranging and object detection Low cost
Accurate ranging
Small size, being used in cars
Low measurement density
Cannot detect markers
WiFi/BLE Use local communication signals for localization Existing infrastructure
Supported by consumer devices
Low accuracy by RSS
High power consumption in WiFi
Problems inherent to wireless signals (e.g., multipath, NLoS, and variation)
5G Use next-generation cellular signal for localization Existing infrastructure
Supported by consumer devices
New features, such as miniaturized base station and mmWave MIMO
Low accuracy by RSS
Problems inherent to wireless signals
Current base station density is low
LPWAN Use IoT signals for localization Supported by IoT devices
Low cost
Low power consumption
Long range
Low accuracy by RSS
Problems inherent to wireless signals
INS Measure angular rates and linear specific forces to derive motion states Self-contained
Robust in the short term
Off-the-shelf sensors in consumer devices
Full motion states
Relative navigation solution
High cost for high-end sensors
Significant errors for low-cost sensors
GNSS Localize device using satellite trilateration Global absolute position fixing
High precision when converged (with RTK/PPP)
Supported by consumer devices
Signal degradation in urban and indoor regions
Prone to jam and spoof
Relatively weak in attitude determination
UWB/ultrasonic Precise localization through precise ranging High-precision ranging
Cost is reducing, being used in consumer devices
Require extra infrastructure
Problems inherent to wireless signals