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Table 1 Strategies and models in multiple GNSS PPP processing

From: GIL: a tightly coupled GNSS PPP/INS/LiDAR method for precise vehicle navigation


Model or strategy

GNSS systems

GPS (G), BDS (C), Galileo (E)

Elevation cut-off angle

Sampling rate

1 Hz

Combination model

Ionospheric-free (IF) combination

Phase ambiguities

No fixing

Observation weight

Elevation-dependent model

Observation noises

Pseudorange 3 m, carrier phases 0.03 cycles