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Table 1 Strategies and models in multiple GNSS PPP processing

From: GIL: a tightly coupled GNSS PPP/INS/LiDAR method for precise vehicle navigation

Items Model or strategy
GNSS systems GPS (G), BDS (C), Galileo (E)
Elevation cut-off angle
Sampling rate 1 Hz
Combination model Ionospheric-free (IF) combination
Phase ambiguities No fixing
Observation weight Elevation-dependent model
Observation noises Pseudorange 3 m, carrier phases 0.03 cycles