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Table 3 Strategies for real-time kinematic PPP

From: Comprehensive assessment of real-time precise products from IGS analysis centers

Items Correction model or estimation strategy
Satellites GPS, Galileo, BDS and GLONASS
Observations Ionosphere-free code and phase combinations
Satellite orbit and clock Navigation message and SSR from different ACs
Sampling interval 30 s
Cutoff elevation 10°
Observation weight Pseudo range noise: 0.5 m; Carrier phase noise: 3 mm
Elevation-dependent (based on sine of elevation)
Phase-windup effect Corrected according to Wu et al. (1992)
PCO/PCV GPS, Galileo and GLONASS: corrected with igs14.atx (Dawidowicz, 2018)
BDS only correct Phase Center Offset (PCO)
Relativistic effects Corrected
Solid tide International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) Conventions 2010 (Petit & Luzum, 2010)
Ocean loading IERS Conventions 2010 (Petit & Luzum, 2010)
Pole tide IERS Conventions 2010 (Petit & Luzum, 2010)
Coordinates Initial values are from Stand Point Positioning (SPP), process noise: 602 m2 /s
Receiver clock Initial value is from SPP, process noise: 602 m2 /s
Troposphere A priori model (Saastamoinen, 1972) and Global Mapping Function (GMF) (Boehm et al., 2006) are used and zenith wet delay is estimated as random walk noise. Initial value: 0.15 m, process noise: 1 × 10–8 m2/s
Carrier-Phase ambiguities Initial value: \({N}_{j}=\Phi -P+2\frac{{\lambda }_{j}^{2}}{{\lambda }_{1}^{2}}{I}_{1}\), j denotes frequency index,
process noise: 0 (i.e., as constant)