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Table 4 RMS of position differences of the PPP solution and the S-VINS aided PPP solution for the GPS, GPS + GLONASS, GPS + BDS, and GPS + GLONASS + BDS

From: Semi-tightly coupled integration of multi-GNSS PPP and S-VINS for precise positioning in GNSS-challenged environments

Items RMS in different directions for G RMS in different directions for G + R RMS in different directions for G + C RMS in different directions for G + R+C
E N U E N U E N U E N U
PPP (m) 1.24 2.54 5.59 1.00 2.35 5.70 1.11 2.40 4.98 0.95 1.95 4.09
S-VINS aided PPP (m) 0.99 1.73 2.49 0.76 1.82 3.17 0.89 1.36 2.60 0.95 1.57 1.32
Improvement (%) 20.2 31.9 55.5 24.0 22.6 44.4 19.8 43.3 47.8 0 19.5 67.7
3D positioning accuracy improvement (%) 49.0 40.3 45.6 51.2