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Table 2 Different estimable parameters in the code-plus-phase ionosphere-float, ionosphere-weighted, and ionosphere-fixed models

From: PPP–RTK functional models formulated with undifferenced and uncombined GNSS observations

Parameter Estimable form
Ionosphere-float Ionosphere-weighted Ionosphere-fixed
Satellite clock \({\text{d}}\tilde{t}^{s} = {\text{d}}\overline{t}^{s} - {\text{d}}\overline{t}_{1}\) \({\text{d}}\tilde{\tilde{t}}^{s} = {\text{d}}\overline{t}^{s} - {\text{d}}\overline{t}_{1} - m_{1}^{s} \tilde{\tau }_{1}\) \({\text{d}}\overline{\overline{t}}^{s} = {\text{d}}\overline{t}^{s} - {\text{d}}\overline{t}_{1} - \tau^{s}\)
BR-DCB None \(\tilde{d}_{{r,{\rm GF}}} = d_{{r,{\rm GF}}} - d_{{1,{\rm GF}}} \,\) \(\tilde{d}_{{r,{\rm GF}}} = d_{{r,{\rm GF}}} - d_{{1,{\rm GF}}} \,\)
Receiver phase bias \(\begin{gathered} \tilde{\delta }_{r,j} = \delta_{1r,j} - d_{{1r,{\rm IF}}} \hfill \\ + u_{j} d_{{1r,{\rm GF}}} + \lambda_{j} z_{1r,j}^{1} \hfill \\ \end{gathered}\) \(\tilde{\tilde{\delta }}_{r,j} = \delta_{1r,j} - d_{{1r,{\rm IF}}} + \lambda_{j} z_{1r,j}^{1}\) \(\tilde{\tilde{\delta }}_{r,j} = \delta_{1r,j} - d_{{1r,{\rm IF}}} + \lambda_{j} z_{1r,j}^{1}\)
  1. \(\left( . \right)_{1r}\) denotes a between-receiver single-differenced operation