Skip to main content

Table 10 Primary and secondary functionality of various sensors in terms of PLAN

From: Indoor navigation: state of the art and future trends

Sensor Primary functionality Secondary functionality
HD map Precise localization and environment perception Constrain localization solutions through map matching
LiDAR Precise point-cloud-based localization Provide environment models and constraints
Camera Provide visual odometry and visual SLAM, or match images with a database Provide environment models and constraints
RADAR Ranging and object detection Enhance cameras under challenging illumination conditions
INS Provide continuous self-contained position, velocity, and attitude Bridge outages of other sensors, and aid signal acquisition of other sensors
Magnetometer Provide absolute heading Provide position through magnetic matching
Odometer Provide absolute velocity and relative distance Constrain the drift of INS errors, and bridge GNSS and vision signal outages
Pressure Provide absolute height Identify the floor level and constrain the drift of INS altitude errors
GNSS Provide absolute position, velocity and time Help initialization for DR and database matching
UWB Provide absolute position Provide augmentation to GNSS and INS in indoor and urban areas
Ultrasonic Provide absolute position Enhance navigation under challenging weather conditions
Visible light Provide absolute position Reliable landmark updates for DR
WiFi/BLE Provide absolute position Help initialization for INS and database matching
5G Provide absolute position Model multipath environment