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Table 6 New WiFi, BLE, 5G, and LPWAN features that can enhance PLAN

From: Indoor navigation: state of the art and future trends

Technology New feature
WiFi Long range, low power consumption in WiFi HaLow (WiFi-Alliance 2020); high-precision ranging in WiFi RTT (IEEE 802.11 mc) (IEEE 2020)
BLE Long range in BT long range (BT 5) (Bluetooth 2017); high-precision direction finding in Bluetooth 5.1 (Bluetooth 2019)
5G Higher base station density (Andrews et al. 2014), mmWave Multiple-Input And Multiple-Output (MIMO), large-scale antenna, and beamforming (Witrisal et al. 2016), device-to-device communication (Zhang et al. 2017a), new measurement types (del Peral-Rosado et al. 2017)
LPWAN Low cost, low-power consumption, long range, new measurement types (Li et al. 2020a)